Saturday, March 14, 2020
Role of Individual Communication and Complain Introduction A number of states are faced with the challenge of balancing state sovereignty with human rights since they are incompatible in practice meaning it is a global issue that many societies face, but the best way of addressing it is still unclear, as state and non-state actors are yet to come up with a comprehensive solution.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Individual Communication and Complain specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After the Second World War, Universal Declaration on Human Rights was ratified with the main purpose of fulfilling the interests of the minorities and checking the excesses of governments, as the world had witnessed the most horrifying situation whereby many people lost their lives and quite a number was physically and psychological tortured (Roth 2004, p. 65). Currently, the actions of various state and non-state actors amount to gross violation of human rights. Events, such a s racial hatred, media suppression, distortion, and bias are rampant in various parts of the world, yet they are instances of human rights violations. The global society is concerned with how the situation could be improved. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international organization charged with the role of ensuring individuals enjoy their rights and freedoms. However, various studies indicate that the body is impotent given its inability to prevent governments and belligerent actors from taking people through inhuman conditions (Smith Pagnucco 1998, p. 380). Apart from the United Nations agency, several human rights organizations operating regionally exist, but they lack the capacity to handle the situation leading to continued suffering. In this article, it is argued that the UN and other regional human rights organizations have failed to carry out their mandates.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The main reason for failure is the structure, which does not support the leadership style that characterizes human rights organizations. It is suggested that the situation could be improved through facilitating individual communication and reporting of complaints. An Overview Some people sacrifice their lives to fight for democracy in many parts of the world. It is unfortunate that such individuals end up living miserable lives because of inadequate measures to support their activities. In developed countries, minorities are faced with the major challenge of racism given the fact their culture is never appreciated and they are always urged to join the mainstream society. In fact, racism is a tool of discrimination and domination that is employed effectively to subjugate a section of society (Meyer 1996, p. 372). Women are considered a special group. However, studies show that they have never enjoyed their freedoms and rights since time immemorial. Based on this, it is noted that the major challenge to their survival is a rigid social structure, defective culture, and male chauvinism. A few years ago, world leaders from various states ratified a treaty that would see the protection of the rights of women. Surprisingly, the situation is still the same since women face traditional problems, especially in the educational system and the labor market. For instance, studies prove that women work for longer hours as compared to men although they end up receiving minimal wages. Indigenous communities are rarely protected from the emerging Multinational Corporations that influence national governments to institute unfavorable land reforms, which end up interfering with the lives of the locals. Mining companies are known to support evacuation programs to pave way for exploration.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Individual Communication and Complain specifically for you for only $16.0 5 $11/page Learn More The process is always done in an inhumane way leading to conflicts (Shelton Wright-Carozza 2013, p. 54). A recent study sponsored by the human rights organizations has revealed that the aboriginals in various parts of the world, such as Canada and Australia, are the most disadvantaged people in the world. Records show further that the discriminated aboriginals are close to three-hundred and seventy million spanning over seventy countries (Shestack 2014, p. 10). Large conglomerates have enormous economic and political power. The UN, as well as other regional human rights organizations, is unwilling to engage them in talks to end inhuman conditions because of their enormous influence (Megret 2008, p. 510). These companies always participate in activities that could not be sustained in development, which ends up in damaging the environment leading to global warming. Additionally, in both developed and developing countries, multinational companies lobby the government to enter into unfavorable trade agreements that make life difficult for the locals, but the UN does not have mechanisms to challenge this behavior. In countries depending on agriculture and production as the major economic pillars, child labor has always been an issue of concern. Unfortunately, the UN simply gives a report and expects other agencies to act meaning it does not have the power to deal with the problem. After the 9/11 attack, the US and other powerful countries have been interfering with the lives of people with claims that they are trying to prevent terrorism (Lindgre 2000, p. 486).Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, the US established an entire department named homeland defense to monitor the situation and advise the government accordingly on issues related to terrorism. In June 2013, wiki leaks revealed critical information and it was evident that the US government has been spying on individuals without their knowledge. The whistle-blower, Edward Snowden, confirmed that the US is one of the threats to individual rights and freedoms, as it engages in unethical and unprofessional behavior, such as intercepting emails, phone calls, and other forms of the internet communication. This shows that the UN and other regional human rights bodies are impotent since they know the problems that people face, but they lack strategies on how to deal with insincere actors, such as the US. The human rights organizations are impotent given the fact they lack the power to act unilaterally or multilaterally meaning creation of a new system based on individual communication and complaints would be hel pful in resolving the soaring cases of human rights violations (Weissbrodt 2006, p. 150). Without adequate communication and reporting of these injustices, the global society would not achieve the much-needed objectives related to gender equality, environmental conservation, democracy, and lasting peace. Status of the United Nations Human Rights Council and other Regional Organizations Failures of the UNHC Just as the United Nations Humans Rights Council, the regional human rights bodies face similar challenges that are mainly the result of the defective structure. The UN human rights body was established during the Bush administration and the US kept off from the leadership of the body because the majority members in the UN General Assembly would control it. The new body is not any different from the defunct commission on human rights that had failed to control the rogue states from committing the worst crimes in the human history (Tobin 2010, p. 47). The current structure of the o rganization allows the notorious human rights abusers to manipulate the system since Burma, Syria, Libya, China, Cuba, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and Saudi Arabia are strong members, something that the US is opposed to. Unfortunately, North Korea, which is one of the rogue states in the current international system, endorsed the organization upon its inception meaning it never poses any threat to its national interests. The new council is in fact expected to perform dismally just as the previous one. The US tried vehemently to reform the non-operational human rights commission without much success something that allowed the opponents of human rights to carry the day in the general assembly. First, the council lacks criteria for membership inclusion since those seeking ascension would be admitted through a simple majority vote (Weissbrodt 2010, p. 16). Additionally, each state is allowed to request for membership without necessarily showing any progress as far as human rights violation is conc erned. Even though the proponents of human rights, such as the US, the UK, Netherlands, Spain, Germany, and Spain would be interested in blocking the membership of rogue states, they would not have sufficient votes to influence the results. One of the resolutions of the council calls on members to review the conduct of one of the partners suspected to be going against the rules. Unfortunately, this evaluation does not have any effect on the membership status of any state meaning it is irrelevant. A state found to have violated the human rights would not be censured, as any suspension or expulsion is only supported by a two-third majority vote in the general assembly (Arsalan 2006, p. 260). In 2005, at least fifty percent of members voted to stop the membership of Sudan. However, this was not sufficient to confirm that the state was guilty of human rights violations. The commission on human rights had fifty-three members and the current one has forty-seven meaning the reduced number was insignificant to facilitate efficiency, something that continues to affect the quality of decisions made. Instead of aiming at strengthening the body by encouraging participative membership, the council was formed with the major objective of shifting the balance of power from the West to the Asia, Africa, and South America. Consequently, the Asian and African states dominate the council with a total vote of fifty-five percent. With time, the number of western countries in the council has been in the decline while African and Asian countries are being represented in large numbers, which is an issue of concern given the fact that the states are known for violating individual rights and freedoms (Ruggie 2007, p. 47). The western countries are believed to uphold individual rights since they are democratic states and the quality of decisions they are expected to make would favor representation and survival. The council has the power to call for special sessions, but only a one-third vote would grant this meaning the western countries would be less represented and what will be discussed in the meeting will be irrelevant, as far as respect for human rights is concerned. The idea of following up goals and commitments as suggested by the UN conferences and summits is uncalled since it lacks the support of the majority of powerful states, as well as legal standings. Lastly, the council resolution tends to erode a well-established standard of freedom of speech since a clause was sneaked in at the last minute following the cartoon affair in Denmark (Voeten 2008, p. 423). Weaknesses of Regional Human Rights Organizations Regional human rights organizations in various continents differ significantly pertaining to their history, structure, and objectives. The only similarity is that they lack the capacity to promote human rights, as they do not have sufficient instruments. A number of these organizations are created to respond to the legal issues meaning they are a resul t of the local law societies even though some are simply bar associations. Those originating from religious organizations tend to be strong in engaging the government in dialogue to provide an enabling environment for individual fulfillment even though their scope is limited. One of the greatest weaknesses of local and regional human rights organizations is the lack of coordination and collaboration. Each organization wishes to operate independently making it difficult to realize the main goals. Studies show that the human rights organizations operating in Africa, South America, and Asia are more of a dream rather than reality, as their members rarely contact each other, exchange ideas, or materials (Lauren 2011, p. 57). Insufficient articulation of ideas and resources among these entities is a threat to the provision of individual privileges since states have always explored this opportunity to weaken them further (Steiner Goodman 2008, p. 38). Such organizations fail to consult e xtensively before devising policies, yet they could be better off if they coordinate with other segments of society, such as the media and the legal fraternity, which are known to champion for human rights. In Africa, the demands of francophone human rights groups are different from those of the Anglophone and this has made it difficult to achieve the desired results. In West African region, a strong human rights organization referred to as the Inter-African Union for Human Rights based in Burkina Faso, exists but its major weakness is political and personal differences among its members. The organizations fighting for the rights of the underprivileged in society have unclear goals and objectives since they are spread too thinly, yet there are many the human rights issues facing individuals. While some are established based on the ideas of pan-Africanism, the reality is that they operate in their state borders with limited operational methods that are inapplicable elsewhere. The org anizations lack planning structures to an extent that the decisions they formulate are reactionary in nature (Reif 2004, p. 113). For these organizations to improve they have to conceptualize and execute educational programs, as this would allow sustainability of programs instead of trying to claim they are relevant in society yet the results are negative. The human rights groups in Africa, Asia, and South America are focused on political rights, such as the freedom of expression, association, political participation, and the right of protection from the law whereby detention is made in the proper way and the conditions leading to torture are eliminated. This means those engaged in the fight for human rights are lawyers, journalists, and other professionals, as the governments always infringe on their rights (Mutua 2009, p. 28). The human rights organizations could only improve if they extend their mandate to include a fight for economic and social rights. Unfortunately, the organiz ations depend on donors for funding while studies show western governments are reluctant to finance organizations focusing on economic and social rights. As mentioned earlier, the organizations do not have proper coordination and collaboration mechanisms leading to duplication and overlapping of roles. In the industrialized states, the human organizations are faced with the major predicament of urban-rural division since majorities of the groups conduct their activities in municipalities and metropolis, particularly in the capital cities, yet many people are found in the rural areas. Research shows further that the city life has its own dynamics and it does not represent the views of those living in the rural areas. The human rights groups have attempted to establish branches to resolve this issue, but still poor communication from the center affect the operations leading to underperformance. However, the human rights groups linked to the modern religions have succeeded in achieving the common goal since they have a readymade structure nationally (Calnan 2008, p. 65). In South Africa, the United States, and other countries suffering from racism and ethnic conflicts, social divisions have been a big issue, as far as realization of the goal and the set objective is concerned since the white race utilizes the political power granted to it to subjugate the rest of the races leading to additional tensions. The performance of such regional groups would be strengthened by involving the minorities in the leadership structures. In some cases, human rights groups are viewed as representing the ideas of a certain dominant ethnic group, particularly when the human rights issue at hand is violence (Bob 2009, p. 76). A majority of human rights organizations in various regions are one-man show meaning they lack internal democratic structures whereby attorneys, researchers, and journalists, are given an opportunity to participate. This might be occasioned by funding issues, w hich allows the head of the organization to dominate the decision-making process. Another problem is gender imbalance whereby women are not given sufficient positions in the organization. It is surprising to note that men control even those organizations dedicated to solving feminine problems. Because of poor structural organization and ineffectiveness in policy formulation, the organizations suffer from funding, which makes them underperform (Bayefsky 2002, p. 17). Only those organizations affiliated to churches and the international organizations have stable funding, but most of them have been forced to shut down their operations because of funding issues. The regional human rights bodies have poor relations with global organizations that are known to support human rights organizations. System of Individual Communication and Complaints The United Nations council in charge of human rights and other regional human rights bodies could improve their performance through a system of ind ividual communication and complaints. Through the new system, individuals would be given an opportunity to protest directly regarding the violation of their rights, which would go a long way in bringing out the real meaning of the rights as contained in the various treaties (Ochoa 2013, p. 71). First, individuals should be familiar with the procedure of problem escalation whereby the offices concerned with the preservation of individual rights should set reporting desks that will facilitate inquiries. Through this, individuals will be in a position to communicate easily with the agencies and if the problem is complex, the neighboring state will have the chance of intervening in what is referred to as state-to-state complaints. In the current system, nine treaties exist, which facilitate individual communication. Each of the treaties has a monitoring body that is concerned with ensuring the law is followed in carrying out key state functions. The Human Rights Committee is one of the treaties that take into consideration individual complaints whenever the international law is broken. The committee is mainly concerned with the provision of political and civil rights. If a candidate feels that his or her political rights have been denied in society and the state organs are unable to resolve them, he or she should feel free to seek guidance from the committee. The committee will move in to analyze the situation and in case the political process is inconsistent with the national and international law, action will be taken against the state or its actors. This plays a critical role in resolving political problems that always result in mass killings and forceful transfer of populations through ethnic wars (MacFarlane Khong 2007, p. 32). The committee on the elimination of discrimination against women (CEDEW) is another treaty that was formulated to protect the interests of women in society and it mainly accepts individual complaints from the affected members. The com mittee bases its authority on the previous treaty that bars all forms of discriminations directed towards women. The committee against torture is commended for the work it does to eliminate all forms of cruelty, degrading mistreatment, and unnecessary punishment (Normand Zaidi 2008, p. 90). Recently, states has employed unwanted methods of information extraction, such as torture, which is applicable even in developed countries. Since individuals are taken through pain, they might end up admitting doing something while in reality they are innocent. Under such circumstances, the individual has to be given an opportunity to report directly to the committee for proper action to be taken. Again, people living with disabilities suffer a lot when it comes to interacting with other members of society because they are not provided with adequate facilities to ease their movement. In many societies, such members are instructed to accept their conditions, but the case is different internationa lly because they have to be provided with all necessary equipments to help them interact and interrelate freely. Since the groups might not have the ability to fight for their rights, they must be given an opportunity to report directly to the existing human rights organizations for their cases to be heard and resolved. Either the affected individuals or their legal representatives might launch complaints. If one state violates the existing treaties on human rights, the international law allows other states to launch complaints with the human rights groups, including the one under the United Nations. Some states are known to extend their aggression to peaceful states demanding for things that do not belong to them. For instance, some might want to alter the boundaries with claims that the land belonged to them traditionally, which might lead to wars and armed conflicts (United Nations 2008, p. 110). Border conflicts are better handled through peaceful negotiations instead of engagin g in war. However, some states have never considered utilizing this option. Therefore, the peaceful state is allowed to raise complain with the world body in charge of human rights, which will go on to initiate a peaceful process of conflict resolution (Hitchens 2001, p. 110). Conclusion The United Nations and several regional bodies are doing everything under their control to prevent states and other global actors from violating the human rights. However, they have failed to execute their mandates because of poor systems of operation that do not support reporting of problems and clear communication. It is noted that the UN council on human rights is as ineffective as its predecessor and only a clear communication and complain reporting system could improve the situation. Regional human rights organizations are trying to protect people, but their focus is narrow and this would not resolve all problems. In fact, without a clear communication and complaint reporting, the entire proces s of defending the rights of people is impotent. List of References Arsalan, M 2006, Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 19, no. 6, pp 257-265. Bayefsky, A 2002, How to complain to the UN human rights treaty system, Kluwer Law International, The Hague. Bob, C 2009, The international struggle for new human rights, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Calnan, S 2008, The effectiveness of domestic human rights NGOs: A comparative study, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden. Hitchens, C 2001, the Trial of Henry Kissinger, Verso, London. Lauren, PG 2011, The evolution of international human rights: Visions seen, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Lindgre, AJ 2000, Ã¢â¬Å"The Declaration of Human Rights in Post modernity,Ã¢â¬ Human Right Quarterly, Vol. 22, no. 2, pp 478-500. MacFarlane, SN Khong, YF 2007, Human security and the UN: A critical history, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Megret, F 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"The Disabilities Co nvention: Human Rights of Persons with Disabilities or Disability Rights?Ã¢â¬ Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 30, no. 2, pp 494-516. Meyer, W 1996, Human Rights, and MNCs: Theory versus Quantitative Analysis,Ã¢â¬ Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 18, no. 2, pp 368-397. Mutua, M 2009, Human rights NGOs in East Africa: Political and normative tensions, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Normand, R Zaidi, S 2008, Human rights at the UN: The political history of universal justice, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. Ochoa, JC 2013, The rights of victims in criminal justice proceedings for serious human rights violations, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden. Reif, LC 2004, The ombudsman, good governance and the international human rights system, Nijhoff, Leiden. Roth, K 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"Defending Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: Practical Issues Faced by an International Human Rights OrganizationÃ¢â¬ , Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 63-73. Ruggie, JG 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"Current developments, business and human rights: the evolving international agenda,Ã¢â¬ Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 101, no. 4, pp 44-56. Shelton, D Wright-Carozza, 2013, Regional protection of human rights, Oxford University Press, New York. Shestack, JJ 2014, Philosophical foundations of human right, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Smith, J Pagnucco, R 1998, Ã¢â¬Å"Globalizing human rights: the work of transnational human rights NGOs in the 1990,Ã¢â¬ Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 20, no. 2, pp 379-412. Steiner, HJ, Alston, P Goodman, R 2008, International human rights in context: Law, politics, morals: text and materials, Oxford University Press Oxford, Oxford University Press. Tobin, JW 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"Seeking to Persuade: A Constructive Approach to Human Rights Treaty Interpretation,Ã¢â¬ Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 23, no. 5, pp 35-89. United Nations 2008, Selected decisions of the Human Rights Committee under the Optional Protocol: Volume 9: 85th to 91st sessions (October 2005-October 2007, United Nations, New York. Voeten, E 2008, Ã¢â¬Å"The Impartiality of International Judges: Evidence from the European Court of Human Rights,Ã¢â¬ American Political Science Review, Vol. 102, no. 4, pp 417-433. Weissbrodt, D 2006, Ã¢â¬Å"Extraordinary Rendition: A Human Rights Analysis,Ã¢â¬ Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 19, no. 1, pp 123-160. Weissbrodt, D 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"The Role of the Committee on the Rights of the Child in Interpreting and Developing Humanitarian Law,Ã¢â¬ Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol. 24, no. 1, pp 10-41.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Book Report on Management Challenges for the 21st Century By Peter F. Drucker - Term Paper Example As a teacher, philosopher, reporter and consultant, he had a very in-depth vision on politics, economics and social transitions which enabled him to guide his followers and readers with a wider and a modern perception of the management and its theories. Drucker authored more than twenty five books with his very debut scholastic work bearing the title, Ã¢â¬Å"The End of Economic ManÃ¢â¬ which was published in the year 1939. His book, Ã¢â¬Å"Management Challenges for the 21st CenturyÃ¢â¬ appeared in the year 1982 and provides an insightful and contemporary information for the benefit of individuals and organizations at the same platform as Drucker has almost united the two separate entities in his book and views their common objective towards the attainment of one common goal. Drucker views the 21st century as the period of Ã¢â¬Å"Profound TransitionÃ¢â¬ as this era witnessed lots of social, political and economic upheavals starting from the World War to great Economic Depress ion. Drucker with his coherent knowledge and foresightedness tried to shape the course of business and management that he visions to classify the future course of commerce amid all the socio-economic and socio-political transitions across the globe. Management Challenges for the 21st Century: A Detailed Insight The era of 21st century is a time of metamorphosis according to Drucker. Amidst the structural changes taking place around, Drucker views five socio-political events that will certainly tend to shape the business and its strategy in the near future. He takes in to consideration the fall of birth rates in the developed countries of the world, transitions in the area of distribution of disposable income, paradigm shift and re-definition of corporate activities and performances, competition in the global market, and the growth of incongruence between the economic and political pragmatism as the factors that would influence much in the reshaping and reincarnating modern course of management, its strategies and businesses. Next, Drucker throws light on the issue of the requirements of leadership. He muses in an elegant style, Ã¢â¬Å"One cannot manage change. One can only be ahead of itÃ¢â¬ . He visions that in the era of the Ã¢â¬Å"new information revolutionÃ¢â¬ influence of characteristics of which are very much evident in the modern commerce, it is important to focus on the information and its meaning and not on the technology through which it is collected. As regards to the productivity of the knowledge workers, Drucker in his epoch making documentation on modern business and its strategy captivated in the Ã¢â¬Å"Management Challenges of the 21st CenturyÃ¢â¬ makes a very contemporary and relevant commentary. He views that the nature of the work for a knowledge workers are quite different from that of the physical labourers and under this circumstance, knowledge workers unlike manual workers, must not be considered as costs but must be treated as c apital assets. And finally, he throws light on the responsibilities that knowledge workers must assume in management pertaining to area of their self-development and their career. Actually very few people influenced the course of business individually in the 20th century to the extent like that of Peter Drucker. He literally invented and redefined management as a discipline in the year 1950s. Before reshaping and redefining management as a major course of study, it was much
Monday, February 10, 2020
Emloyee Engagement - Assignment Example Organisations are constantly searching for the new and improved ways that can enable them to stay ahead of their competitors by creating efficient and effective competitive advantages. For this reason, employers have realised that this goal can only be achieved by shifting their focus to employee engagement, even though, opponents of employee engagement argue that it is not be the real cure for all the problems that the organisations face today. However, the implementation of the engagement strategies is a key to the overall organisational effectiveness as well as the path to the creation of personal and career development for the employees. This report is aimed at discussing the employee engagement as one of the contemporary issues in the international human resource. Employee engagement is a necessary strategy for an organisation to create competitive advantage in the business world arena. According to Macey & Schneider (2008), employee engagement is a never ending process. He goes to say that the key ingredients for employee engagement is provision of an enabling environment to the employees, which gives them emotional and meaningful enriching experience. He further asserts that the employee engagement is not about keeping the employee happy and rewarding them for the tasks that they have done. It is much deeper than this (Macey, & Schneider, 2008). According to Kahn (1990), employees use different emotional, physical and cognitive levels or abilities in their work performances daily. From the HR perspective today, the employee engagement continues to be of critical consideration in the business world today. Due the challenging economic climate, most organisations now more than ever before have decided to restructure and re-size, which has resulted in the organisations investing in the new approaches to human resources management in order to maintain and
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Programming software can be good for children Essay Programming software can be good for children with the correct guidance. Antonio Garcia Vicente at only six years old entered to the young programmers club of Valladolid University to learn how to create video games with the computer and mobile devices. He created his first video game at seven years old to help his classmate to improve their understanding of the classes. Maria Vicente, his mother, and software engineer explain that children, computers and mobile devices are meant to be misunderstood. \Children are capable of doing more things with computers and mobile devices but the elders believe that everything is very delicate, and it is, but children have more imagination and they are not afraid to try things.\ (Tosas, 2016). Due to the fact, there is evidence showing that using computers and mobile devices could be harmful to children who are 4-6 years old, the parents and educational institutions can teach the children how to use properly it, can improve their growth. Opponents said that children who are exposed more than ever to computers and mobile screens are more prone to addiction and depression. Even though specialists in psychology from the Childish Hospital Federico GÃ ³mez at Mexico City explain that, these negative effects are avoidable by limiting the use of computers and mobile devices (Univision, 2015). It is necessary to balance the time spent with those devices with other activities important for their development such as physical exercise and social coexistence. Mark Baley, Director of the Pacific University Child Learning and Development Center describes how a 5-year-old child fascinated with the Titanic received an interactive CD-ROM with a large screen computer. As he piloted this virtual tour of the Titanic, friends who wanted to hear the story and see the pictures surrounded him. He had to use the mouse carefully and precisely to navigate this tour. His social skills and small motor skills began to show improvement over a cou ple of weeks (Naeyc, n.d). Opponents consider children between 4-6 years old who use computers and mobile devices at risk of potentially irreversible eye damage because of blue light emissions from those screens. Whereas these conditions can be treated and prevented with regular breaks and blinking, the hazards of accrued exposure to blue light are still relatively unknown. In 2014, a US study showed artificial retina cells grown in a laboratory were destroy when exposed to blue light (Ongaro, 2014). However, they were exposed directly to the blue light for many hours that is why they were destroy. This is because they donÃ ´t have the natural blinking that children naturally have. The parents have to educate the children to make continuous blinking, take some breaks, do some exercises and look at distant objects for 10-30 seconds periodically, so that children can rest the muscles they use to see. In addition, the new technologies like the fast refresh rate, high resolution, automatic brightness and contrast are in favor of childrenÃ ´s ocular health. Opponents argue that there is a struggle with obesity because sitting in a chair in front of a computer and mobile devices can trap children between 4-6 years old, without even thinking to go to the toilet. However, according to Health Awareness Community, the advancement of computers and mobile devices will make the next generation more active, not less (2016). With the advances in smart phone technologies and high accuracy GPS systems, there are entirely new fun physical activities for children. The Sworkit Kids mobile app virtual platform for free was born with the mission to turn physical exercise into a game by providing parents and kids with personalized activities focused on improving flexibility, strength, and agility. This app is to motivate children to play sports, is suitable for 4-6 years old, and encourages them to be entertained and motivated. It is evident that using computers and mobile devices on children between 4-6 years old could be unhealthy, but all those arguments are avoidable with the guidance of parents and educational institutions. Those technology devices will not disappear, the children have to be educated to optimize its use. The computers and mobile devices will not negatively affect the childrenÃ ´s learning capacity if their parents limit the time spent on it and combine it with other activities. The computers and mobile devices now have better screens and children educated to blinking, take breaks and do some eye exercises after their use, so that they will not damage their eyes. With the mobile devices and its technology, children and their parents will be motivated to do some physical exercise to improve their flexibility, strength and agility.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
It may seem like cell phone television commercials are straightforward and easy to follow, but many people would agree that after a few monthly bills start flowing in, they may form a different opinion. These Ã¢â¬Å"so-simpleÃ¢â¬ cellular phone plans that the companies advocate are often quite misleading to consumers. This is largely due to the fact that companies present viewers with a vague explanation of their services. This is successful in making a person feel the need to sign-up without any apprehensions. Many individuals do not realize that they have been deceived into a contract that they will eventually regret after it is too late. The most common misleading topic that cell phone commercials try to avoid expressing is the costs of the unknown bill charges and where they come from. Cell phone companies work hard to hide as much of the costs as possible from their consumers. They may say a certain rate in the advertisement, but this is the bare minimum in most cases. What they are not telling their costumers are the roaming charges, long distance contingencies, and, if available, text message rates. Indefinite bill charges are very popular problems that occur for most customers. For example, a Sprint customer experienced first hand how Sprint was increasing their monthly rates. The customer had signed up for a $50-a-month plan but did not know what he was paying for until, Ã¢â¬Å"he heard the news that Sprint PCS had been quietly imposing rate increases, tucking them under Ã¢â¬Ëfees and surchargesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Ballheim,2003). People are often not aware of what the whole plan includes because just pieces of favorable information are told to them. When the customer finally realizes the extra costs, and want to change companies, they are slammed with even more charges. The man who was mentioned previously still had to pay another $150 dollars as a penalty fine in order to cancel his service (Ballheim, 2003). This is an all too familiar case with false advertising a cell phone plan. It seems as though the cell phone companies should be the ones who should pay the penalty fine. But, we, the customers, keep paying these deceiving companies to mislead us and charge more money when they do.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Industrial relations is seen as the most subtle and complicated crisis of current Industrial society. It Is Impossible for any organization to have harmonious working environment unless and until there Is a heedful relationship and cooperation with labors.Hence, it is vital for all to have appropriate interest in generating fine relations between the two actors known as employers and employees. This essay will elaborate on the controversial issues such as, strike and absenteeism followed by owe these issues affects the actors mainly employer, employee and entire population either directly or indirectly In their daily lives and whether does this Issues have positive or negative Impact on them.To begin with, Industrial relation Is considered to be a diverse field which Is viewed in different perspectives by three distinctive schools where in unitary school, industrial relations see employer-employee relationships essentially harmonious and conflict is seen as the intrusion, Pluralist p erspective accepts expected conflicts and variety of groups will compete with evergreen interests, objectives and aspirations and through Marxist viewpoint there is a perpetual conflict between the two actors because of the unfair distribution of wealth and power between them.All these diverse nature portrayed by each school has some controversial Issues that Is related with Industrial relations thus, affecting everybody either directly or indirectly. Moving on, the controversial issues are mainly the industrial conflicts in an organization and the most popular one is Ã¢â¬Å"strike' which is a strong weapon utilized by labor alliance or trade unions in regards to getting heir certain demands to be fulfilled.Generally, group of workers relinquish the production process and brings up pressure on the employer In order to get their demands accepted. The most obvious effect of strike on employer Is that production schedules are disrupted and production capacity lowers. This Ã¢â¬Å"direct lyÃ¢â¬ affects the employers, employees and also the state whereby, employees lose out on working days and because of this, production and profit is forgone to the employers and once profitability level is down there is a huge tax loss by state.Hence, this also indirectlyÃ¢â¬ affects the general public whereby, inflation takes place since there is product scarcity as production disturbance Is caused through strike and as a result, the public faces disruption of certain goods and services. Mostly due to strike there can be a severe economic and social effects and costs which can generally affect the actors, states and entire population.This can be supported through an event that had happened in 1959 in Fijian oil Industry where workers strike for higher wages and benefits like; sick leave and 40 hour workweek; Ã¢â¬Å"The strike was held for complete days in which all the gasoline stations were under stoppage since the fuses were gasoline stations the essential transportation se rvices like bus and taxis also went on strike in order to pressure the employers to accept the demands and also to commence the service soon. This affected the general public since they were deprived from transportation services.Later, the striking crowd grew and because of their demands still not being answered, workers threw rocks at the Europeans. This caused social cost since other shops located beside the gasoline stations were also imaged by the rock thrown and since the curfew was established later therefore, innocent people available near the scenic area also got victimized and had to taken to hospital hence causing social cost where they had to seek medical attentions by doctorsÃ¢â¬ (Global Nonviolent Action Database). On the other hand, strike also has positive impacts whereby it can significantly progress the lives of workers together with their families.Benefits may include where the employees might lose their wages for the certain days but they achieve more in regard s to longer terms for example, wrought strike employees bargains an increment of 5% in their wage rate for an year then basically upcoming increases will be supported by larger amounts. Furthermore, absenteeism and attendance are also importance to industrialized society. Largely, absence from work creates extensive range of consequences on the workers, workplace, the industrial operations, and also the stipulation of goods and services to society. T characterizes a form of momentary revoke from the organization by the employees which enforces essential costs on the process of labor management. Absenteeism is due to many reasons such as Job stress, personal attitude or Job satisfaction but at the same time it also affects generally. This stands out to be the alarmingly high cost to management. This is evident when glanced at some foreign countries like Australia where industries Ã¢â¬Å"through absenteeism lost thirty times the number of working days than strike and eventually loosin g approximately $7 billion annually. Similarly, American industries also encountered it where Ã¢â¬Å"approximately $40 billion is lost annually' (Gorilla, MAGMA, course book). Hence, profitability level is at risk and states lose out on tax. Likewise, employees also lose out where due to absenteeism they might get terminated or dismissed from the employment contract that they were under and as a result, they will be left unemployed and largely it will affect their family since they might not be able to gain access to basic food items for their survival in future thus leading them to poverty.Looking at the population, they will be deprived from non-availability of certain goods and services thus, rise in price of products, leads to a drop in purchasing power and generally low income earned by retail shops. However, being left from work for nine basis can be advantageous for individuals and also for the workplace. It approaches to help in reducing the risk of injuries not only to empl oyees but permits a productive workplace, through sick leave employers are able to get rid of workplace stress and other disorders, and also maintains productive workforce.For instance, an employee is ill but is trying not to affect the Job that is being given therefore, that might affect other employees as that illness can be infectious, making the certain employees ill at the same time thus, more sick leaves are being utilized, eventually effecting the production level for a week or so. Categorized in diverse nature which stands out to be occupied with controversial issues which is in a form of conflicts mainly known as strike and absenteeism.These issues do have both negative and positive impacts on the entire population and employer, employee and also the state where they have to pass through economic and social costs. Eventually, to get rid of these issue and to have a healthy workplace policies must be revised and established hence, having a productive workplace and employers benefit the most which at last promotes betterment to state and the population. Bibliography Invalidates. Swarthmore. Deed, (2014).
Monday, January 6, 2020
Speaking of watching a live opera, I had two extremely different experiences. Before taking this course, I have never watched a live opera in person. When I went to New York City during the spring break, I watched Prince Igor in the Metropolitan Opera House. And at the end of March, I watched The Magic Flute produced by the Music School of UM in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. It is apparent that the Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre is not as magnificent as the Metropolitan Opera House in regard to construction. However, when it comes to listening experience, surprisingly, the Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre outstands the Metropolitan Opera. Because opera singers and the orchestra donÃ¢â¬â¢t use microphone devices, sitting in a smaller theater enables me to hear the music more clearly. I can also feel the presence of the orchestra team and the orchestra compliments the singing well. And whatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to me that I can see the actions and facial expressions of the singe rs, which draws me into the plots. Compared to this, watching a show in the Metropolitan Opera House is less engaging no matter how many people it can contain. I felt I was watching opera on a small TV screen from a remote place and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the power the sound. It could be that the plots of opera itself can make a difference. Prince Igor is historical opera that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have too many stage effects. The Magic Flute is a romantic fairytale and a comedy, which is more relatable for me. The story of TheShow MoreRelatedFarewell My Concubine ( 1993 )1592 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesConcubine (1993) is a Chinese drama film that succeeds in mixing and blending two different, but equally powerful, historical and personal stories that parallel and complement each other in historically significant ways. 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